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Application Software of Computer Basis(计算机基础之应用软件)

热度 1已有 3534 次阅读2009-1-5 18:04 |个人分类:Computer|

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Software refers to computer programs. Programs are the instructions that tell the computer how to process data into the form. you want. There are two kinds of software: system software and application software.

  System software is a collection of programs that enables application software to run on a computer system's hardware devices, it is background software and includes programs that help the computer manage its own internal resources.

  Application software is a specialized programs that enables the user to accomplish specific tasks.

  In this text, we mainly discuss system software.

  System software consists of four kinds of programs: bootstrap loader, diagnostic routines, basic input-output system, and operating system. Among these four parts, the operating system is we most concerned with, whith helps manage computer resources. Most important operating systems are: Windows, Windows NT, OS/2, Macintosh, and Unix.

 Windows Windows gets its name because of its ability to run multiple applications at the same time, each in its own window. Windows offers graphical user interface (GUI), presents the user with graphic images of computer functions and data. It provides a standard mechanism for copying or moving information from one program to another. This mechanism, called the Clipboard, means that information created in one context is instantly reusable in another, you don't need to reenter information or work with clumsy data-transfer utilities. Windows also has DDE (dynamic data exchange) and OLE (object linking and embedding) functions. In DDE two or more applications can be linked. This way, data created in one application is automatically

  entered into the others. OLE, like DDE, links data between applications. Additionally, OLE allows the application receiving the data to directly access the application that created the data.

  Windows NT Windows NT is an operating system designed to run on a wide range of powerful computers and microcomputers. It is a very sophisticated and powerful operation system. Developed by Microsoft, Windows NT is not considered a replacement for Windows. Rather, it is an advanced alternative designed for very powerful microcomputers and networks. Windows NT has two major advantages when compare to Windows:

  Multiprocessing It is similar to multitasking except that the applications are run independently at the same time. For instance, you could be printing a word processing document and using a database management program at the same time.With multitasking, the speed at which the document is printed is affected by the demands of the database management program. With multiprocessing, the demands of the database management program do not affect the printing of the document.
  Networking In many business environments, workers often use computer to communicate with one another and to share software using a network. This is made possible and controlled by special system software. Windows NT has network capabilities and security checks built into the operating system. This makes network installation and use relatively easy.

  OS/2 OS/2 stands for Operating System/2. It was developed jointly by IBM and Microsoft Corporation. OS/2 has many similarities with Windows NT. It is designed for very powerful microcomputers and has several advanced features. Some of its advantages over Windows NT include:

  Minimum system configuration Like Windows NT, OS/2 requires significant memory and hard disk space. However, OS/2 requires slightly less.

  Windows application Like Windows NT, OS/2 does not have a large number of application programs written especially for it. OS/2 can also run Windows programs, but it runs these programs slightly faster than Windows NT.
Common user interface Microcomputer application programs written specifically for Windows NT, as well as for OS/2, have consistent graphics interfaces. Across applications, the user is provided with similar screen displays, menus, and operations. Additionally, OS/2 offers a consistent interface with mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers.

  Macintosh Operation System The Macintosh Software, which runs only on Macintosh computers, offers a high-quality graphical user interface and is very easy to use. Apple Macintosh System 7.5 designed for Apple computers using Motorola's PowerPC microprocessor, is a significant milestone for Apple. It is a very powerful operating system like Windows NT and OS/2. System 7.5 has network capabilities and can read Windows and OS/2 files. It has several advantages:

  Ease of use The graphical user interface has made the Macintosh popular with many newcomers to computing. This because it is easy to learn.

  Quality graphics Macintosh has established a high standard for graphics processing. This is a principal reason why the Macintosh is popular for desktop publishing. Users are easily able to merge pictorial and text materials to produce nearly professional-looking newsletters, advertisements, and the like.

  Consistent interfaces Macintosh applications have a consistent graphics interface. Across all applications, the user is provided with similar screen displays, menus, and operations.
 Multitasking Like Windows, Windows NT, and OS//2, the Macintosh System enables you to do multitasking. That is, several programs can run at the same time.

  Communications between programs The Macintosh system allows applications programs to share data and commands with other applications programs.

  Unix Unix was originally developed by AT&T for minicomputers and is very good for multitasking. It is also good for networking between computers. Unix initially became popular in industry because for many years AT&T licensed the system to universities for a nominal fee. It is popular among engineers and technical people, with the arrival of very powerful microcomputers, Unix is becoming a larger player in the microcomputer world. Unix can be used with different types of computer systems, that is, it is a portable operating system. It is used with microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframes, and supercomputers. The other operating systems are designed for microcomputers and are not nearly as portable. It also has the advantages of multitasking, multiprocessing, multiuser, and networking.
 应用软件可被指定为最终用户软件。应用软件完成有用的通用任务,例如字处理和价格评估。有些是被广泛用于几乎所有行业领域的通用程序。它们是:字处理、电子表格和图像程序等。它们也被称为基本工具,并且具有一些共同的特性。

  插入点 插入点或光标显示标示着用户接下来可以输入数据的地方。一般来说 ,它是屏幕上闪动的竖直条。用户可以使用鼠标或键盘上的方向键移动它。

  菜单 几乎所有的软件都有菜单。一般地,菜单显示在屏幕顶部的菜单栏中。当其中之一被选中,就会出现与此下拉式菜单。这是和所选菜单相关的一列命令。

  帮助 对于大多数应用程序,菜单栏中都胡一个“帮助”菜单。当被选中,帮助选项出现。这些选项一般包含一个表的内容,查询有关特殊命令的说明信息和可以到处移动的集中选项。

  工具栏 工具样一般位于菜单栏的下面。它们包含图标或普通命令的图像表示符。 这就使得用户可以通过图像符号来选择命令。工具栏就是图形用户界面的一个例子,在图形用户界面中使用图像目标而不是菜单来选择命令。

  对话框 通常在下拉式菜单中选择了一个命令之后就会出现对话框。这些对话框用来说明附加的命令选项。
  滚动条 滚动条通常位于屏幕的右边或底部。它们通常能够显示在当前屏幕上看不到的附加信息。

  WYSIWYG 发“wizzy-wig”间,WYSIWYG代表“所见即所得”。这就竟未着在屏幕上显示的图像和最终打印出来的文档是一样的。没有WYSIWYG的应用程序,就不能显示最终打印文档的精确表示。WYSIWYG特性允许用户在文档打印之前预览文档的全貌。

  功能键 功能键被标为F1、F2等等,这些键位于键盘的左边或顶部。它们用于需经常完成的命令或任务,比如下划线。这些键在不同的软件包内完成不同的事情。

  现在分别介绍最常使用的应用软件:字处理和电子表格。

  字处理软件被用于建立、编辑、保存和打印文档。文档可以是任何类型的文本材料。使用字处理,可以浏览打在显示器而不是纸上的文字。打印完毕后,可以将文字存放在软盘或硬盘上,并且可以将结果打印在纸上。

  这种方式的精美之处在于在用户打印文档之前可以进行修改,即使文档已打印出来,也可以很容易地返回去并进行修改,然后再打印出来。你想把一个报告的行距从双倍改成单倍吗?你想改变左右边距的宽度吗?你想删除一些段落并插入其他文档的一些段落吗?字处理可以很容易地帮你完成这些事情。事实上,删除、插入和替换——几种主要的修改任务——只要按键盘上的键就可以完成。流行的字处理软件是Word、WPS等。它们具有一些共同的特性。

  字换行和回车键 字处理的一个基本特点是换行。当完成一行时,字处理器就会决定并且自动地将插入点移动到下一行。若要开始一个新段或空一段,可以安回车键。
 替换和查找 查找命令允许在文档中寻找任何字符、词或短语。查找时,插入点就会移动到所查项目首次出现的位置。如果还想查,程序就会继续寻找所查项目出现的所有地方。替换命令会自动地用另外的字来替换搜寻的那个字。寻找和替换命令对于发现和修改错误是非常有用的。

  剪切、拷贝和粘贴 使用字处理,通过醒目显示选择要移动的文本部分。使用菜单或工具栏,选择命令来剪切所选的文本,这样所选择的文本就会在屏幕上消失。然后移动插入点到新的位置,选择粘贴命令,把剪切的内容重新插入到文本。用类似的方法,可以复制选中的文本到另外一个地方。

  电子表格 电子表格是用于组织和管理数字并且显示选项以供分析的电子工作表。电子表格是由金融分析师、会计师、项目承包人以及其他和操纵数字数据有关的人员来使用的。电子表格允许用户尝试各种假设分析的可能性。这是一个很有用的特性。可以通过使用存储的公式处理数字,并且计算出不同的结果。

  电子表格具有几个部分。电子表格的工作区域在顶部有列标的字母,在左边有行标的数字。行和列的交点,被称为单元格。单元格存有单一的信息。单元格的位置被称为是单元格地址。例如,“A1”就是电子表格的首位置,即最顶部和最左边的位置。单元格指针——也被称为是选择器——指示在表格中数据在那里输入及修改。单元格指针可以到处移动,其移动方式非常像在字处理程序中移动插入点的方式。Excel是最常见的电子表格软件,它具有一些电子表格程序共同的特性。
 格式 标号通常用于标记工作表中的信息,通常是一个字或符号。单元格中的数字被称为值。标号和值可以用不同的方式显示和格式化。标号可以在单元格内居中或居左、居右。值可被显示小数的位置、美元或百分数。小数位数可以被改变,列的安度也可以被改变。

  公式 电子表格的优点之一是可以通过使用公式来处理数据。公式是计算的指令,它们能使特殊单元格内的数字之间建立联系。

  函数 函数是自动完成计算的内部公式。

  重新计算 重新计算或“what-if”分析是电子表格最重要的特性之一。如果改变了表格中的一个或多个数字,所胡相关的公式将会自动地重新计算。这样就可以替换由公式改变的单元格内的值,并且重新计算结果。对于较复杂的问题,重新计算让用户能够存储长的、复杂的公式和许多改变的值,并且很快的产生替换。


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发表评论 评论 (2 个评论)

回复 mja1226 2009-1-9 19:37
谢谢哦
回复 Tagosin 2009-12-15 21:31
mja1226: 谢谢哦
不用谢啊!能有人分享我很开心!

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