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热度 2已有 1996 次阅读2010-6-14 10:32 |

Hebei Youth Administration Cadre College

Graduation Thesis (Design)

 

 

Type:     Graduation Design          

Title:  Indian Businessperson Reception   

Major:   Business English      

Grade and Class: Business English, 2007  

Name:         Fu Jiao          

Student ID:      No. 10              

Tutor:         Sun Yijun            

 

Abstract: As these days the influence of the English language is increasing. It becomes more and more important for college students to enhance their English reading ability. Based on the importance of English in the world, this paper expounds the importance of enhancing the English reading ability. The research focus of the paper is how to improve the student’s reading ability and the skills to read in English.

 

Key Words: English reading; reading ability; reading skills

 

 

 

 

 

 

摘要         

随着英语影响力的加大,提高学生的阅读能力己变得越来越重要。本文通过介绍英语在当今世界的重要性,阐述了提高大学生英语阅读能力的紧迫性。本文的研究核心是如何提高大学生的英语阅读能力以及提高阅读能力的一些技巧

关键词

英语阅读、阅读能力、阅读技巧

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRAC

 

As these days the influence of the English language is increasing. It becomes more and more important for college students to enhance their English reading ability. Based on the importance of English in the world, this paper expounds the importance of enhancing the English reading ability. The research focus of the paper is how to improve the student’s reading ability and the skills to read in English.

Key words:
        English reading; reading ability; reading skills

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How To Enhance English Reading Comprehension Ability

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

As English become so important that it is very necessary to enhance English reading ability to enlarge our knowledge and broaden our vision. If they enhance English reading ability they can learn well science and technology of foreign countries’, to college students, enhancing English reading ability can give a lot of help to improve listening, speaking and writing However, English reading is a very complicated recognition process. Then, this article will discuss how to enhance college students’ English reading comprehension ability

 

 

The importance of promoting college students' reading ability

With the development of society, English reading ability becomes more and more important. Reading is one of the four basic skills which learners are required to master if they want to learn a foreign language. So improving students' reading ability is of great urgency.

The score of reading comprehension takes about 40%in the college English test band 4. In a certain extent, Reading comprehension ability directly influences the grades of English tests. Moreover reading could strengthen the interest of learning English enlarge knowledge and be helpful for college students to have a better understanding of the world. We can not study foreign language well without improving the reading ability.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analysis of the problems of college students in terms of  English  reading

College students have many problems in English reading. There exist three problems. First, they pay little attention to the accumulation of vocabularies. Second, about 45% students fail to continue reading when they meet new words. Third, some of them just guess the new words according to the texts, which influence the understanding to the details of texts. 

One of reasons for vocabulary obstacles is that we pay little attention to vocabulary accumulation. Some students would skip the words that they do not know, or they would count on dictionary or e-dictionary, which makes students, can not know the accurate meaning of the new word, It is the main obstacle for students to enhance their reading ability.

The problems In grammar has became a bigger obstacle in English reading, 66% students are insensitive to contextual pronouns, disjunctive conjunctions, and causal adverbs. The base unit of a sentence is word, and every sentence is made up of words in certain grammatical rules. Having acquired a good knowledge of grammar is good to enhance the capacity of analyzing sentences. When reading we should grasp the meaning of sentences through the grammar structures or styles. Thus Grammar has a great effect on reading speed and accuracy

   The college students would feel hard to handle the culture. That is because they know little about the culture abroad. This gives them a lesson that students have to learn the culture well in English reading. Still do not understand the hidden meaning of it. 83% students being lack of cultural background information of Britain & America have poor understanding on reading, which causes reading disabilities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The ways of improving college students' English reading ability

 

  Reading is one of the four important skills in English as a second or foreign language. It is also a skill that the college students need to possess to support independent and self-directed learning. It becomes more and more important for English learners to speed up their reading in order to acquire as much information as possible. Thus, cultivating good English reading ability is essential for students. In the following this article will discuss how to improve the college student’s reading ability.   

 

 

 

3.1 Enlarging the vocabulary

The number of the words you know determines the difficulty and complexity of the material you can read and understand. If you have an extremely limited reading vocabulary, you will be able to read only very simple material. Obviously, vocabulary forms a block for the poor reader. The more words you memorize, the faster you read the article. So, it is necessary to memorize words as much as you can. Certain words then have a very high occurrence and are used over and over again. Since the English vocabulary is so vast, the student cannot hope to master vocabulary only by learning lessons in the classroom. When coping with unknown vocabulary, they have to develop strategies.

They can enlarge vocabulary by using the rules of word formation; many words in the English language are made up of word parts called roots, prefixes, and suffixes, like“sad”, “sadly”, “sadness”, and so on. Therefore, this method is used to help readers get the meaning of an unknown word by analyzing the word structure, which is by dividing words into usable parts such as roots, prefixes and suffixes. If the college students know a number of commonly used prefixes, roots and suffixes, they will be of use in unlocking the meanings of unknown words that they find in their reading. They should learn a certain number of new words by heart every day. Young students have good memories. It is possible for college students to memorize some words every day without much difficulty. They can choose some words for yourself, which is very helpfu1. When they meet these words in readingthey will feel easy, they will feel confident and more interested in reading.

 

 

3.2 Having a good understanding of the grammar

Language is composed of words and grammatical structures. The accurate rate of comprehension is based on the mastering degree of the words and grammar. In case of learning a language, for instance, a child or a beginner who learns a foreign language, learns some words first, then begins to get in touch with the regulation of sentence --grammar, then he can use words to make sentences himself. Only by understanding the rules of the game, you can win the game. Sometimes, we find some learners recite a large number of words and they can say the meaning of them as they see them, but when these words are arranged into a sentence, these learners cannot make sense of them. Why? That is because they are not familiar with grammar. Grammar is the skeleton, which produces the variety of different words combinations. Mastering grammar is the basic step to make progress on English reading.

If the sentence is long, try to break it up into small parts the general then added, “The only reasonable solution to the sort of problems caused by the current unstable political situation is one of diplomacy and economic measures and not the use of military force.”
The sentence should be read like this:” The only reasonable solution to the sort of problems/caused by the current unstable political situation/is one of the diplomacy and economic measures/and not the use of military force.”
Looking for key words that tell you the relationship within a sentence.
“The West had sent armies to capture and hold Jerusalem; instead they themselves fell victim to new ideas and subtle influences,”
“Instead” indicates that something happened contrary to expectations.

3.3 Deepening the understanding of background Knowledge

Learners should realize that culture is very important in language learning. Reading and writing English material are often concerned with western culture .background knowledge plays an important part in reading. The range of background information is quite wide and it includes culture, custom, geography, science and technology, etc. ‘British &American Culture and Society’, ‘British & American Literature’, ‘History of British &American Literature’ etc can help students understand those countries’ information. Actually Americans usually say ‘how are you doing? ---pretty well’, rather than ‘how do you do?’. When teaching, teachers can choose some articles rich in background knowledge for students’ reading. After a period of training, students can understand more, and their reading ability will enhance significantly.

    Enriching and enlarging the background knowledge are the keys to understanding the text. Everyone have experiences of reading something which does not contain any new words or new structures, but we still find it difficult to understand its meaning.  The reason is that reading comprehension is constituted by simple-and-easy word and structure comprehension and difficult background comprehension. In other word, when reading, maybe the college students know each of words or structures. But they don’t know what the sentence means because of lack of background knowledge. If students master the grammar and word knowledge, they can only understand the word meaning, however, in order to know the abstruse meaning; the college students should have the aid of the word meaning as well as background knowledge and inference. Every English article must cover the social-cultural knowledge. Maybe the knowledge is about politics, history, values, belief, religion, moralities, geography, thoughts pattern, habit and custom, outlook on life, etc. If we don’t understand the background knowledge we certainly come across lots of barriers in reading process. “Knowing a language is to know the grammar, vocabulary and the culture rules of use that together determines how it is appropriate to use the language in a particular context”.

 

  . The lack of students’ cultural background knowledge often hinders their comprehension in reading. For example, we mean pornographic by the word “Huang” in Chinese, but in English, “blue” is taken instead of “yellow”. If learners don’t know, they will not understand what “blue film” or “blue video tapes” mean though the words seem to be quite easy. More attention should be paid on culture background in leaning idioms and literature works; otherwise, we have no mean to understand the implication of words and passages correctly. There are some approaches to develop students’ cultural awareness in English reading. Firstly, teachers should seek cultural information concerned in textbooks and other study materials then sort out and present them to learners at a proper time and under proper situation. Secondly, let students read some books about English and American culture under teachers’ guide. Thirdly, let students have discussions about the differences between Chinese and English culture, make them know the importance of culture in English reading, analyze mistakes made by students, and then correct them one by one. The teacher should supplement some cultural background knowledge that students can understand. Last, but not the least, we should correctly handle the contradictions between language learning and cultural learning. Let’s take “face” for example.

He has squandered his money and he has got to face the music.

If you continue doing something wrong long enough, sooner or later you are going to face the music.

So what does the expression “face the music” mean? It’s for you to make it out if you have no idea about its story.

It means to accept the results of what you have done. No one knows how the expression began. A story says the expression began in the theater. New actors, shaking with fright, were told that the only cure was to go out and face the music. The music was played by the orchestra seated in front of the stage.

 In a word, the learners must realize that the thoughts and point of view of different nationalities, different types of societies about the nature and human society are quite different and it is evidently wrong to understand foreign language in the same way as our mother tongue. To some extent, the achievement of English reading goal relies on the students’ cultural awareness. So enriching and enlarging the background knowledge are very important in reading. 

 

3.4 Forming good reading habits

Some people read very slowly. They think that reading slowly helps them understand better. That is not right. As a mater of fact, the faster you read, the better you understand. The expression” haste makes waste” does not apply to reading. Remember, nothing hurts concentration more than reading too slowly. By always reading at top speed, The college students challenge their understanding and make it easier for mind to concentrate on the materia1. A good reader should develop a correct method of reading. That is to train himself to read attentively (not to read back) and silently (not to read aloud), sentence by sentence, not word by word. Whenever meeting a new word, try to guess the meaning from the context. Consulting the dictionary from time to time not only affects one’s reading speed and the comprehension of the reading material, but also gets the reader frustrated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

English reading skills

How can the readers make improvements in English reading? There are many skills to improve one's ability of reading comprehension.

 

 

4.1Skimming and scanning

Skimming and scanning are skills for making fast search for information. Skimming is a way of reading materials quickly, in order to look for a general idea, especially when students try to decide whether careful reading would be desirable or when there is not enough time to read carefully. This skill-type reading can be used when reading newspapers, magazines, novels and the like, which can not only enlarge horizon but also bring enjoyment of language. But how can we skim? Force your eyes to move fast. Sweep across each and every line. Pick up only a few key words in each line. As beginning to skim a passage, they should read the first paragraph at normal speed all the way through. Because the opening paragraph contains an introduction or overview of what will be talked about. Then, from the second paragraph on, students can only read as much of each paragraph as we have to in orders to discover whether it contains a main idea or any important details. The college students should skip over the parts, which are nonessential to us until we reach the ending paragraphs, which they should read more carefully because they often contain a summary. This skill of reading is widely used when one read an exposition or an essay.

Like skimming, scanning is also quick reading. However, in this case, the search is more focused. To scan is to read quickly in order to find a particular point of information. Scanning skill is particularly helpful when we want to consult a dictionary, look for a certain advertisement (hunting for a job, renting a house, etc.). For example, when we look for the amount or the number of something, we simply look at the Arabic numerals; when we want to find the name of a person or an organization, we just scan for the words beginning with a capital letter. When reading, you need to read it with some aimsthen read the article as quickly as you canThe parts that are not relevant with the questions are swallowed at a high speed, and the other relevant messages are tasted at a little slow speed. The answers of scanning must be accurate. It’s warned that you should not pay attention to the reading speed, if so, students can’t locate the right answers and scanning is of no use at a11.
Scanning and skimming are important skills; they do not remove the need for careful reading, but they enable the reader to select texts, or parts of texts, that are worth spending time.

 

4.2 Skills of guessing meanings of new words or expressions

New words and expressions are always easily found when reading an article. Some of them can be ignored because they are not so necessary for you to grasp the main idea of an article or answer the questions. However, there are also a lot of new words, which are key words to the article. Not knowing the meanings of these words will greatly affect the understanding of the article. So the ability of guessing the meanings of the new words is very important in reading comprehension.

4.2.1 Guessing meanings of new words or expressions

according to word-formation

Lots of word formations have certain patterns Such as: Prefix, Suffix Derivative, and Compound etc. Like the root of Log (speech, speak) Lots of words are created by “Log”, such as “dialogue, prologue monologue, etc.” Another example

  Ant, anti- means: against  

   For most of the new wordsstudents can guess the meaning of them by their word—formation. Compounding, suffixation and conversion are the main types of word—formation. Knowing the ways of the formation of the words, you can guess the meanings of the new words without much difficulty. Take the word “uneventful” for examplewe can divide the word into three parts: un-, event and -fu1. Un- is a prefix, which means“not”event is the rootAnd -full is a suffix with the meaning “full of, having the quality of”. Then we know the word “eventful” means:” full of notable events” and so “uneventful” meanswithout any notable events’’.
   In the sentence “Unlike her gregarious sister, Mary is a shy person who does not like to go to parties or to make new friends…” The word “gregarious” was a new one to the students. The students had to not only guess its meaning was “not shy”but also understand that the meaning of it was conjectured by the contrast.

 

 

4.2.2 Guessing meanings of new words or expressions

according to context

 

   When reading English materials, college students can’t always look for dictionary when meet new word. Except for guessing meanings according to word-formation, they also can guess meanings of new words or expressions according to context

Frogs and other animals are known as amphibians because they have double life. They are at-home on land and in the water”. If you don’t know the word “amphibian” you can guess the meaning of the word from “double life” and “on land and in the water”. 

The meanings of the words can be guessed from the given information in the contexts, for example:
Mr. Joes got on the motorbike, I sat behind him on the pillion, and we roared off into the night.
Suppose the students don’t know the meaning of the word “pillion”, they can guess it in the following way. Since the above sentence tells that “Mark got on the motorbike” and “I sat behind him”. The meaning of the word “pillion” probably means: saddle for a passenger behind the driver of a motorbike.

 

 

 

Conclusion

As stated above, it is very necessary to develop the students’ ability of reading through enlarging the vocabulary, having a good understanding of the grammar, deepening the understanding of background Knowledge. However, Rome was not built in a day. It is necessary fort the students to keep on applying these methods to their daily reading. They should keep on accumulating experiences. The discussion above is just an attempt to find out the methods in English reading. Only in the process of reading, can they discover the right way for themselves.

 


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回复 黄棒清 2010-10-16 10:13

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